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    • Aidynbek Mussa

      Результаты олимпиады   06/05/2019

      Внимание участники!  Уже известны результаты первой онлайн-олимпиады от нашего сообщества. Прикрепляю файл с результатами внизу Результаты олимпиады по географии - Лист1.pdf 

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  3. О себе

    Удачи Хорошо провести лето
  4. Онлайн-олимпиада в сообществе Polaris

    Я тоже не могу зайти
  5. Онлайн-олимпиада в сообществе Polaris

    ответьте плиз
  6. Онлайн-олимпиада в сообществе Polaris

    Саламатсыз ба. Мен де олимпиадага вообще кіре алмай турмын
  7. Онлайн-олимпиада в сообществе Polaris

    Саламатсыз ба. Мен осы олимпиадаға қатысатын оқушы едім.Сағат үште 15:00-де басталады деп еді. Әлі басталған жоқ.Қашан басталатынын айта аласыз ба.
  8. О себе

    Нормально, готовим для вас олимпиаду, скоро Мэск по казахскому, потом САТ сабжект 1 июня, потом ещё пара дэдлайнов. Этим летом похоже отдохнуть не получится.
  9. О себе

    я вот сегня был на пикнике с классом. А как прошел ваш день?
  10. О себе

    как дела?
  11. Онлайн-олимпиада в сообществе Polaris

    29 мая состоится первая онлайн-олимпиада в нашем сообществе Polaris. В этот раз мы проведем олимпиаду для трех разных групп одновременно: 7-8 классы 9 классы 10-12 классы Для регистрации на олимпиаду необходимо проголосвать в опросе к этой теме отмечая тот класс, в котором вы учитесь в данном (2018-2019) учебном году. Регистрация будет открыта до 27 мая 2019 года 23:59 по времени Астаны В течение недели мы опубликуем еще одну тему, где будут указаны дальнейшие инструкции.
  12. Chalk quick summary

    Chalk - variety of limestone which is composed mainly of calcite skeletons of plankton (coccoliths) It forms under reasonably deep marine environment Chalk has greater resistance to weathering than clays, therefore when clay layers are washed off, white chalk cliffs are formed, where chalk ridges meet the sea. Due to the similar reason when layers (bands) of chalk reach the surface at an angle escarpments are formed. Chalk absorbs a lot of water, therefore chalk landscapes look so dry Cretacious period is called so, because thick layers of chalk formed during that time. When Alps formed these layers got exposed to the surface in England, Germany and France. Flint (sedimentary rock formed from sponge spicules) and brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and sponges be can found in the chalk deposits, as can sharks' teeth. When you see thick chalk deposits you can definitely say that for some time in the past there were very stable conditions for over tens of millions of years. (Like during Cretacious period in Europe) Definitely check out: https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/ks3/gsl/education/resources/rockcycle/page3824.html Other useful links: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/escarpment/ https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Cliffs_of_Dover
  13. The Galilean moons quick summary

    Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They are named after lovers of Zeus (Jupiter). Io - the most volcanically active body in the solar system. Io's surface is covered by sulfur. Jupiter's immense gravity causes 100m "tides" on its surface, but instead of water we have ground literally breaking apart. Volcanoes are driven by hot silicate magma. Europa - mostly water ice with hypothetical ocean beneath it. Europa contains twice as much water than Earth does and may contain life too Ganymede - Ganymede is a guy, so Zeus is gay. The largest moon in the solar system and is the only moon known to have its own magnetic field. May have underground oceans too Callisto - extremely heavily cratered and very old. Has a very small degree of current surface activity Io, Europa, and Ganymede have a layered structure (meaning they have a core, mantle, crust, etc.). Layering on Callisto is less well defined (like on our moon, but a little bit better). Heat for keeping Europa's and Ganymede's underground oceans liquid comes from the core and from "tidal" forces too.
  14. Scoria quick summary

    Scoria - Basaltic or Andesitic volcanic rock. It is formed when gases from the lava rapidly escape living these "Frozen bubbles" in the rock. It happens when molten rock is rising in a volcanic pipe, the decreasing pressure allows the gas to expand out (like opening a can of soda releases carbon dioxide). It is very similar to pumice but has a different chemical composition. Old name - cinder Dark colored Mafic with a frothy texture Highly vesicular (>50%) Sinks in water (in contrast to pumice) Composed of glassy fragments and may contain phenocrysts (large crystals compared to the rest of the rock) Volcanic cones of scoria may be left after eruptions of Strombolian type. Very good article about scoria: https://geology.com/rocks/scoria.shtml Other Useful links: https://www.universetoday.com/32247/scoria/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scoria
  15. Mercury quick summary

    Mercury - the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System Orbital period: 88 days Mercurian day: 58 days 15 hours Orbital period/duration of the day = spin-orbit resonance. For Mercury, it is 3/2. When spin-orbit resonance equals to 1, one side of the planet will always be facing the sun, and another side will always be in the dark (like with Earth and Moon). This effect is called tidal locking. Because 3/2 is close to 1 and for some other technical reasons people thought that Mercury rotates synchronically with the Sun. This is not true. On the other hand, 3/2 is indeed close to 1, therefore, Mercury rotates even slower relative to the sun. That means that if you could stand on the surface of Mercury, it would take a staggering 176 Earth days for the Sun to rise, set and rise again to the same place in the sky just once! Temperature range: from -190 (night side) to +430 C (sunny side) Has a big iron core that creates weak Magnetic Field, and contains 83% of the planet's mass & 55% of the volume The orbit is the most eccentrical (circle-like) compared to other planets in the solar system. No atmosphere. It is blown away by the solar wind. No satellites Composition: 70% metallic, 30% silicate Due to its massive core, has the second density in the solar system (5.427 g/cm3). On the first place is the Earth (5.515 g/cm3) Surface shows heavy cratering and mare-like plains (mare is the name for basaltic plains on Moon. It is the sign of ancient volcanic eruptions) Mercury seems to be geologically inactive for already billions of years. Definetely check out Nasa's overview of Mercury and other planets: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/mercury/overview/ Other useful links: https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/exploring-the-planets/online/solar-system/mercury/surface.cfm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_locking https://www.universetoday.com/47834/length-of-day-on-mercury/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_mare
  16. Rock cycle

    (First, look at the image. only then read the article) The Rock Cycle is one of the most important themes in Geology. Rock cycle is similar to the water cycle, but instead of water and ice, we have magma, lava, and rocks. Rock cycle starts with molten rocks below crust called magma. When magma intrudes the crust it cools. If magma cools inside the crust it becomes an intrusive igneous rock (granite, diorite, gabbro). When it cools on the surface it becomes an extrusive igneous rock (basalt, andesite rhyolite) Now, these igneous rocks have two pathways: Burial. There may be lots of reasons why rocks became buried (I will cover them later). The lower you go inside the Earth, the higher temperatures and pressures will be. When you are deep enough, our igneous rocks change and become Metamorphic rocks (gneiss, schist, etc.). Then, when they are buried even deeper, metamorphic rocks start to melt and become magma again. Uplift. Could be caused by an earthquake or something like this. All uplifted rocks are called outcrop. All outcrop undergoes weathering and erosion. Then, weathered and eroded rocks are transported and deposited somewhere. Now, they are called Sediments. When Sediments are buried, under pressure and temperature they become Sedimentary rocks (sandstone, claystone, mudstone, limestone, etc.). Now, sedimentary rocks may be uplifted and become outcrop again or may be buried deeper and become Metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks also have two options: be uplifted and become outcrop, or be buried to become even more dope metamorphic rock. In the end, when buried deep enogh, rocks become magma again.
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